Wolgast Blog

Your Business Plan and Your Building

Posted by Cory Sursely on 9/14/2021

BusinessPlanA critical element of your business plan is a realistic budget for anticipated expenses, along with possible revenue streams. One of the biggest expenses of a business is the building cost.

Realistic Building Costs

Some businesses can operate anywhere and will be able to easily get a rental cost number to plug into their plan, but other operations need a more robust and well developed idea of a building designed for their particular use. Whether an entrepreneur owns the building or will need modifications to a leased building, they would likely need more information to narrow down the expense. Additionally, the location of an anticipated building can factor in additional costs for taxes, association fees, zoning, utilities, permits, supply chain expense, or even affect foot traffic as a revenue stream; so consulting with a professional Design/Build Contractor that is familiar with the area the owner would like to be, can lead to ideas that may have not been realized before they met with these experts.

While a final building expense won’t be possible without hiring an architect, but if you’re willing to share your anticipated/needed budget, Wolgast’s Business Development and Estimating Teams would be able to let you know if your plans are feasible from a ballpark standpoint, or they may have a solution to get you where you need to be. We’ve been helping doctors, restaurateurs, manufacturers, auto dealers, and other commercial businesses realize their building plans since 1948 and we can do the same for you.

Location, Location, Location!

Finding the best possible location can also be an advantage for your business and should be a part of your plan along with the anticipated revenue streams due to the popular location. A Commercial Real Estate professional can help you narrow down possible options and a Design/Build Contractor can help assess how well each one will work for a business’ needs. Location can certainly boost marketing or customer service strategies including brand awareness, signage/communication with passersby, ease of product or service distribution, foot traffic, and/or parking availability to name a few.

A Few Suggested Research Items

I talked to Wolgast’s Business Development Professional, Dr. Michael Shepard, to see what he would suggest to someone who is working on a business plan. He said, “If you have a piece of property in mind and are anticipating building a new building, it is a good idea to add expense for a property survey”. This is so you know the historical use of the property and if there is any environmental contamination that could make the land too expensive to develop. Additionally, “It’s a good idea to meet with possible financial institutions to see what requirements are needed to get a commercial loan in place”. Finally, Dr. Shepard suggests that you look at established offices, either in person or online, and collect photos of design elements that you like. “This will help to determine the finishes and final usage that they anticipate, which will definitely play a factor in the budget of their future business”.

Useful Business Plan Template

The SBA.gov has a template to create a business plan and also a Startup Costs Worksheet for future entrepreneurs to use. On the Startup Costs Worksheet, they have line items for one-time rent expenses, improvement costs, monthly building costs, and repairs/maintenance costs. All of those items Wolgast can assist an entrepreneur in determining a realistic budget based on well-developed ideas.

Tags: Design/Build, Financing Construction, Good for Business

SBA 504 Provides Easy Financing for Small Business Growth in Michigan

Posted by Cory Sursely on 7/23/2021

ExpansionIt’s not unusual that I encounter potential clients who are expanding and need new space to accommodate their growth, but aren’t able to expend their capital for the down payment on a typical bank loan.

You may not know that for years, small businesses in Michigan have had the SBA 504 program available to them to help make improvements to their business.  With the implementation of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) otherwise known as the Stimulus Package, this program has become the prime lending program for small business expansion in Michigan. Below, I feature some of the details of the program (source:  Michigan Certified Development Corporation). 

SBA 504 Programs are primarily designed to as­sist healthy, expanding businesses that have been in operation for more than 2 years.  Eligibility re­quirements include:
• A tangible net worth of less than $15 million 
• Average net profit, after tax, of less than $5 million for the past 2 years
 
504 programs can be used for the following pur­poses:
• Purchase of land, building, machinery and equipment
• Land improvements
• Renovation or addition to an existing building*
• Construction of a new building
• Leasehold improvements*
*Note – Renovations and Leasehold improvements may be weighted differently and may carry a lower priority. 

Small business advantages:
• Lower down payment: Borrow up to 90% of your financing needs, saving your money for working capital
• Longer repayment terms: Real estate can be fi­nanced for 20 year term
• Low, fixed interest rates for the life of the SBA loan 

The program has been embraced by commercial lenders across the State due to the following ad­vantages:
• Lower risk with a 50% LTV (Loan-to-Value)
• Lender gets first lien position
• 504 loans are eligible for CRA credit
• Streamlined SBA paperwork to complete with approx. two week approval
• 504 loans effectively extend lender limits to serve larger clients
• Ready secondary market for lender’s first mort­gage loan
 

In summary, this program will allow eligible businesses to buy, build, or remodel* commercial and industrial buildings with minimal investment, and yet enjoy the benefits of a fixed, below market interest rate and a 20 year term, with as little as 10% down.

Wolgast Corporation has been a leading provider of commercial construction services throughout the State of Michigan.  We have many resources to help assist you while planning your construction or remodel projects.

TELL US ABOUT YOUR PROJECT

Tags: Professional General Contractor, Financing Construction, Good for Business

Commercial Building Exterior Remodel Strategy

Posted by Cory Sursely on 6/17/2021

ExteriorWhether a business is a restaurant, office, manufacturing plant, or school, having a building exterior remodel strategy can make a project very efficient and beneficial for a building owner. A plan should include incorporating low maintenance materials, safety elements, easy accessibility, and curb appeal to serve a business well into the future, as well as cut costs, and attract new customers.

Low maintenance material choices, such as fiber cement siding, EIFS, brick, Fullerton Panels or poured concrete, are durable, don’t require painting, or much up-keep in the future. By incorporating a number of these materials, an owner can reduce their maintenance budget and the inconvenience to staff or customers that maintenance crews can create. Additionally, changing to LED lighting and using a combination of uplighting and downlighting can showcase a building and make it more noticeable after hours and be less costly to operate. Even windows and doors are made to be much more efficient over the last decade or more, so depending on when an owner's windows or doors were installed, replacing them could save an owner a lot on energy costs. Choosing hearty perennial plants that can survive many different elements is a great option to keep costs down and elevate curb appeal. Heated sidewalks and heated air at entrances, may not be the most efficient cost wise, but can eliminate bugs entering your building, slips and falls, and less maintenance to keep up with snow removal and wet carpets.

If a business wants to gain more traffic at their building location and/or be inviting and accessible to all types of customers is helpful. Being ADA compliant with your parking lot and entrance is beneficial to gaining new customers if you haven’t had these elements before. Automatic doors, way finding signage, handicap parking near ramps and the building, are all barrier free changes to enhance your building. With changes presented by the pandemic, some businesses could benefit from implementing or enhancing their curbside pickup, too.

It is always good to strategize safety considerations that can help protect staff and clientele. Replacing tall shrubs near an entrance will prevent attackers from hiding and surprising unaware people entering or exiting a building. Installing cameras and again having ample LED lighting can deter attackers from hanging around a building to do unsavory things. And, finally, I’ll include that when guardrails or bollards are strategically placed around a building, as indicated by an architect, it will prevent cars from hazardously entering or hitting your building while protecting the people and materials inside.

Wolgast Corporation is an Employee-Owned Construction Group in Michigan that specializes in commercial construction. We can help you create a strategy and design that will improve your building exterior to be more efficient, long lasting, and attractive. Please contact Michael Shepard to discuss design, strategy, and construction options at 800-WOLGAST or mshepard@wolgast.com

Tags: Energy Savings, Design, Good for Business, Remodel

Certificate of Need and Your Design/Build Contractor

Posted by Cory Sursely on 11/24/2020

Ambulatory Surgery CenterUpdated 11/24/20: The controversial Certificate of Need (CON) program in Michigan is in question through several new bills that passed the Michigan Senate in February 2020.  It has yet to be decided in the House.  The debate has been ongoing and seems to be getting more and more heated with those against it arguing for an open market approach to drive down cost and those for it are claiming that the medical industry needs to be regulated to keep a high standard of care at an affordable cost.

Furthermore, as we hear in the news more often, medical groups are having difficulty securing their CON in saturated Metro Areas of Michigan because a premise of the CON has been to drive medical care to regions where there is less medical access.  A positive note is, due to regionalism and urban sprawl, there are new populated pockets where medical services are less saturated and CONs are still available.

As a Design/Builder that has been through the CON process several times with our medical group clients, we wanted to offer you some insider tips to getting through the application.  First and foremost, it’s important to build your team of CON/Design/Construction experts before you even look for your property.  Enlist your CON consultant and contractor to help you find an area that has CON capacity and also will accommodate your building/parking lot size.  Additionally, you’re architect plays a big role during the application period as you’ll need to submit schematic drawings, project narrative, site development plan and design fees, in the CON submittal package.  The contractor provides the estimated cost of the project, which is also required with the application.  And, obviously, having a CON consultant on the team provides an expert when navigating around the requirements and bringing all the necessary documentation together with accuracy, so that there are no setbacks from missing or incorrect information during the application process.  It could save you two weeks or more in your review time and provide insider know-all advantages.

When you work with Wolgast Corporation as your design/build expert, we already have an established team of architect, engineer, medical construction specialists and CON consultant that have been through the CON process together.  We’ve helped doctor groups find suitable locations with available CON credits and also with renovations, additions and new builds to help them grow their surgery centers.  Through our Design/Build construction service, we satisfy all necessary requirements to help you move through the application process as efficiently as possible.

Learn more about our Design/Build construction services below, or call Dr. Michael Shepard to discuss how we can help you expand, 800-WOLGAST. 

Design/Build  the Wolgast Way

Tags: Medical Office Construction, Design/Build, the Wolgast Way, Design, Good for Business, Risk Management

All Things Touchless Boosts Protections for Onsite Staff

Posted by Cory Sursely on 11/23/2020

AutomatedThrough the pandemic, business leaders have learned that the importance of making work spaces safer within a commercial, industrial or institutional building and still be functional for workers, students, patients, patrons, clients, or whoever else may cross the threshold. Now, winter is predicted to elevate the Covid-19 spread as people are spending more time indoors sharing air. Even though many Michigan businesses are still closed from the shutdown or limited because they have made it possible for their work force to force work from home, some industries can’t have their staff working from home, schools have been going between open and closed as they navigate the infection levels, and healthcare offices are still restricting their service and who can come in the building. As these entities plan for the long haul of whatever amount of time the virus is going to be inflicting us, the keys of working at the “office” are separation, clean air, and making more things “touchless” in the business space – AKA All Things Touchless.

Making All Things Touchless in a work place is a means that could be useful past the pandemic. The less that people have to touch or be near each other, the less likely the spread of germs of any kind can happen. For many that are back to the office, there is most likely a check in process where they open the door, someone interviews about health and takes temperatures, then the arriving staff member makes their way to the elevator or doors to get to their work area. This creates face-to-face interaction and touching door knobs. Installing access control, such as card readers to use with smart phones at an entrance can prevent continual touching of door handles and can record who is entering the building. Also, automating bathroom features throughout the building will reduce the need to touch shared spaces.

Jackson Control, a building security solution company, in Indianapolis, IN conducted a virtual Town Hall Meeting series in April 2020 to discuss ways to make commercial and institutional space safer. They identified that keys to improve the health of a commercial building include UV light filtration, thermal imaging, and occupant tracking. The UV light retrofitted in the duct work sanitizes the air while it circulates taking out infectious virus before it spreads through the air ducts, which is ideal for schools and restaurants. Thermal Imaging and Occupant Tracking is also good for schools where anyone with a fever can be detected within the building and tracked where they have traveled to help narrow down tracing activities, or additionally help monitor the number of people in an area where they can’t spread out to socially distanced levels. Occupants who came into the same space where the thermal camera identified an elevated body temperature can be notified to monitor for symptoms, tested, or quarantined to stop an outbreak faster. This can all be done without much interaction or need for additional staff.

Protecting a work force, or adding these safety measures to bring a work force back to work would be more efficient and convince staff, customers, students, delivery people and vendors alike with All Things Touchless. If you need direction on how to install any of these into your building, please contact us for more information - 800-WOLGAST.

Tags: Professional General Contractor, Good for Business

Expert Says Take Advantage of Large Rebates to Convert to LED Lighting

Posted by Cory Sursely on 9/1/2020

LED1

Light-Emitting Diode (LED) bulbs are the most efficient light option on the market, and energy companies are making them more affordable for residential and commercial clients. The market cost can seem prohibitive for business owners with hundreds of bulbs to convert, despite the fact that LED lights last much longer and use significantly less energy. In 2019, 10.4% of electricity costs in the U.S. came from lighting our businesses.1   This figure has been trending downward from 38% in 2003 for commercial buildings2.

For some time now, energy companies have realized that overall energy usage would only continue to grow if users didn’t take precautions to save on energy. One way they set out to achieve this was by encouraging more LED lighting which uses “75% less energy and lasts 25x longer than incandescent lighting”3.


Rebate savings and incentives offered by the energy companies

Most energy companies across the country, including those in Michigan, are underwriting the cost of LED lights (and other energy saving measures) to help slow down the need to build costly energy plants, burn more coal, or maintain aging generators. Programs include interior and exterior lighting for businesses. It is beneficial to check with your energy company to find out what they’re offering and what qualifies for rebates.

I consulted with Standard Electric’s Lighting and Energy Program Specialist, Chelsea Wisniewski, who helps their clients with energy rebate applications. Chelsea said, “Most of these programs are actively providing large incentives at this time. We don’t know how long they’ll last. The incentives could decrease or go away eventually depending on program budgets, goals, and ever changing building codes. Clients should take advantage of these programs as soon as possible so they can receive enhanced incentives for the materials they are purchasing.”

Wolgast has been a Business Solution Trade Ally with Consumers Energy since 2013. We’ve helped our clients save money, including the largest amount for one School District that received over $125,000 to help offset the money they invested in a new heat-conserving roof, energy-efficient lightbulbs and other energy saving renovations they made to their buildings. This School District also gets to reap the benefits of future energy savings from these products, but also decreased bulb replacement costs. While schools have a large footprint and use a lot of bulbs to light their building that is used vastly throughout the day, Chelsea said, “the average dollar amount saved usually depends on how many items and what items a client is purchasing. Rebates change from anything as low as $5.50 instant savings on each bulb to possibly thousands of dollars through a prescriptive rebate”, or one that is customized for the client. She also said that it’s best to find out if your energy company has a specialist to help with the prescriptive application to make the process smoother and more efficient.


Hot Topics for Energy Saving Lighting Products or Programs

Right now, there is a “huge incentive for purchasing DLC approved exterior lighting”, according to Chelsea. You can receive “70 cents per watt reduced”. DLC stands for Design Lights Consortium and provides a list of products prequalified for energy efficiency standards. Also Chelsea shared that currently, K-12 schools that make outdoor lighting upgrades, “can account for up to 88% of product cost”.

Additionally, I spoke with Steve Ferrier of Gasser Bush, a lighting and controls company, about what is hot right now in lighting products for commercial use. He said that “OLED is newer technology available in light fixtures.” Also known as Organic Light Emitting Diode, it is the same light that illuminates your cell phone. The panels are flexible and emit beautiful light with great resolution. The down side is the OLED light is very costly, there are no rebates at this time, and also it burns faster than LED, so replacement costs will be higher. They could be useful in a luxury, display lighting situation.

In closing, if you haven’t done so already, look at your energy company’s website to find out more about their incentives and other cost saving ideas to start reducing your energy costs, today for your home or business. Or if you have any questions about lighting your building or any other energy saving ideas, feel free to contact us for guidance going forward. We have LEED Certified professionals on staff to help, too.

If you’ve found this information valuable for managing your building, please let us know.

 

1 https://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/electricity/use-of-electricity.php, “Electricity Explained”, 8/28/2020.

2 https://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/reports/2012/lighting/, "Trends in Lighting in Commercial Buildings", 5/17/17

3 https://www.energy.gov/energysaver/save-electricity-and-fuel/lighting-choices-save-you-money/led-lighting, “LED Lighting”.

 

Sustainability

Tags: Energy Savings, Good for Business

Five of the Best Reasons for a Commercial Building Renovation

Posted by Cory Sursely on 7/17/2020

Commercial Renovation to Stay Put

renovationYou either really like your building the way that it is, your location is part of your long-term plan, or financially speaking a new building is out of the question.  Those are all good reasons to stay where you are.  However, I’d like to share with you a few of the best reasons to consider renovating where you are currently.

1)  Improve traffic to your business – we have seen it time and again that renovating a commercial space peaks the interest of local people.  It also provides additional promotional opportunities because having a renovated space to talk about creates a whole new advertising campaign.  Whether you’re a doctor, restaurant or a school, you consistently want to attract new people to your space, right?  This is a great way to do it while improving your building investment.

2)  Make your current operations more efficient – a company’s business and flow of work obviously changes over time.  A renovation or redesign can help improve efficiency and provide the right amount of space for staff to complete their tasks.  Whether you need more or repurposed space, a redesign should be well thought out to improve your operations.  Through a needs analysis meeting, your architect will be able to determine the spatial needs of your organization.

3)  Accommodate the addition of new equipment – you know that piece of equipment that will allow you to do more with less effort?  You've been thinking about it for a while.  Now is the time to make room for it and improve your bottom line.

4)  Incorporate new energy efficient changes to save on costs – the green market is expanding every day and continues to offer products to make your space more energy efficient.  An update of your heating/cooling system, electrical system, windows and/or insulation could save you a lot of money on energy costs each year.

5)  Take advantage of competitive pricing/low commercial loan rates – should you need a loan to complete your commercial renovation, interest rates are remarkably low at the moment and there is the option of the SBA 504, too.  Take advantage while you can. Also, currently, construction competition is high and material prices are a little lower, so it may be a great time to get even more value for your project.

Pretty much, it all boils down to your business being relevant, efficient, and interesting.  If you already have all those things going for you, you’re all set.  If you need a construction consultant to help you start planning, call Michael Shepard at 989-790-9120.

 

Inquire Here

Tags: Design/Build, Professional General Contractor, the Wolgast Way, Good for Business

How the Condition of Your Facility Could Attract the Best Successor

Posted by Cory Sursely on 2/24/2020

successionMost of us want to retire as soon as we’re ready and able, but business owners have a unique situation of preparing for a successor to take over their operation.  Ideally, they’d have started planning for successorship early so the transition can happen during high times when business and the economy are strong.  This way the owner was able to choose the best candidate and get the anticipated value of the company.  The best successor is one that will take care of employees and clients as well or better than the predecessor did. And the best way to find them is to remove all obstacles to entice a successor who’ll continue the business legacy.

As part of your planning, consider the condition of your building (being a lesser known limitation) when seeking the right candidate.  Think about it, how valuable is it to your clientele how your building looks, or what do you think when you visit a business establishment if their building is outdated, dirty, or run down?  The condition, cleanliness and design say a lot about the capabilities of who is providing the goods or service.  Furthermore, whether or not there’s a family member to take over, there’s a lot involved in preparing to make the transition.  They won’t want to start their new leadership focused on remodeling rather than on improving the business.  Having a building in good condition could set you apart from other potential businesses by a successor.  The most common advice offered to owners is to start looking early.  In addition, we advise to maintain an attractive building kept in good repair.  We know that there is a lot more involved with succession planning, but since we’re building contractors we will focus on our area of expertise.

A well located and good looking building can attract traffic and result in a higher valuation, as well as be more enticing to a potential successor.  Of course the successor will want to research the company’s books, systems, earning potential, and corporate culture to make a decision about buying a business.  However, if they have to do a lot to the building to make it suitable, or relocate due to a building’s poor status, the anticipated expense could kill the deal. 

Small aesthetic changes due to the successor’s design tastes is one thing, but a major overhaul like repairing the building envelope, code violations, and outdated systems or infrastructure ought to be addressed by the predecessor well before the succession happens, so that they can recoup some of their cost.  Building updates and repairs as part of the succession plan can be timed right so the owner gets the most value for the company.  There is a balance to achieve when an owner can have a couple years to generate sales and cover some of the expense, but also still be up-to-date so the successor will be proud to take ownership.  Working with a contractor, like Wolgast, to update the commercial building will bring the most value to the predecessor.  We will help guide the owner to make cost effective decisions while supplying great quality construction.  Call Wolgast today to get your building improvements started.

 

Tags: Good for Business

What Should a Business Owner Know before Hiring an Architect or Contractor?

Posted by Cory Sursely on 1/21/2020

Calculator2-1The Jack Miller Group was a former industry network for General Contractors across the United States.  In 1988, Mr. Miller had published a paper called, “Rules You Should Know before You Build Your Important Project”.   He started by stating that there are a few basic questions that business owners should ask themselves as they start to plan a construction project1:

  • Why expand?
  • Why own…why not lease?
  • What do I need?
  • What can I afford?
  • Where is the best place to build?
  • Where can I get financing?
  • When should I start?
  • When should I occupy the new facility?
  • What is the best way to build?
  • How can I be sure I get maximum value for my investment?

These questions are still a good place to start planning prior to contacting a designer or building team.  However, I asked our project team what they thought was most important to see if there were any updates to Mr. Miller’s list.  Their response was 1) a budget and 2) who will do the financing.  This is because knowing the budget early will help a business owner to know if what he or she wants to do is reasonable and having the financier in place will help speed up the start date.

Next, our team thought that the business owner should know that their contractor and architect have good liability insurance and that they are capable of handling the entire project.  When making a contractor or architect selection, the business owner should inquire about insurance coverage, bonding ability, safety records, customer/ trade/bank references and financial proof that the project team can complete the building.  Additionally, it’s good for an owner to know that he or she has construction delivery optionsDesign/Build is a better option for certain types of buildings because the architect and contractor are on the same team under the same contract.  It provides time and cost savings and results in less disputes as to the responsible party when there is an issue during construction.  However, Design/Build isn’t suitable for all projects, so other options we offer are General Construction for simple projects or Construction Management for complicated projects that are long in duration.  Investigate which method will provide the best outcome for the type of building.

It’s good to know the area or type of property desired to build or renovate.  A business owner doesn’t need to settle on a property before meeting with a contractor.  The contractor may even be able to suggest a property that hadn’t been considered, but could meet the business’ needs while being more economical because the utilities already exist or the zoning has already taken place.

Additionally, a business owner can benefit from knowing that bidding in the winter and building in the spring/summer, or even early fall, can save money on a construction budget.  In the winter contractors are less busy relatively to spring/summer, so they’re looking for projects in the off season to fill their calendars during the prime construction season.  Scheduling design to be completed in time for winter bidding will get the most value for the construction dollar.

A professional contractor will then handle the other critical items that need to be complete before construction on behalf of the business owner, such as conducting site inspections, determining zoning requirements, obtaining construction permits, conducting utility checks and calling Miss Dig among many other necessary activities to get construction complete efficiently and accurately for the most value.  Wolgast is a full service contractor and we will professionally deliver your building.  Call 800-WOLGAST to get started.

1Miller, Jack. 1988.  “Rules You Should Know before You Build Your Important Project.” Group Communications, Inc.

 

Tags: Professional General Contractor, Good for Business

Your Building Envelope’s Role in Reducing Energy Costs

Posted by Cory Sursely on 11/12/2019

BldgEnv-1Keeping your building’s protective barrier, a.k.a. its envelope, intact, leak free, and in good repair is a great way to avoid spending your hard earned profits on energy costs.  The envelope entails any part of your building structure that keeps outside elements from coming inside when closed.  Otherwise, your roof, EIFS, windows, doors, walls, and even floors can leak and make your HVAC work harder, or worse let water leaks damage equipment and causing microbial growth.

Michigan’s temperate climate brings its own stresses on building materials including the seasonal flux in temperature.  Expanding and contracting flashing can create holes in your roof where the nails have been used to keep sheeting in place or cracks in caulking around windows.  Additionally, rain and wind can cause erosion where different types of materials are connected and hail can poke holes in roofing or siding, as a few examples.  When these types of leaks happen, your AC has to work harder in the summer to cool your office and regulate the humidity, while in the winter the heater also works harder to warm up the space and add necessary moisture for comfort.  Furthermore, rain leaks can do major damage to your ceiling, your structure, or result in microbial growth which can create headaches, allergies, or asthma for occupants.  Mold that is hidden or has a moisture source that isn’t completely fixed is costly for a building owners in the long run.  The quality of air your staff breathes or the exposure from outside elements can affect their health and, in turn, their attendance.

In conclusion, it’s important to check the caulk around your building exterior annually for cracks.  Caulk may have a 5 year life cycle, but there are too many variables that can cause ware and tare.  Hire a reputable caulking company to fix any caulking leaks.  Also check your roof and roof flashings annually for any visual damage that could lead to leaks.  Or if you’re experiencing a leak, contact a reputable roofer who will ensure that leaks are fixed to find and eliminate microbial growth.  Should you have mold or be concerned about mold, or any structural issues, call Wolgast.  Our Restoration and Construction Teams will be able to help you get your office back to a leak free status to keep your energy costs down.

Tags: Energy Savings, Good for Business